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    舌尖上的中国(英语版)第3集:转化的灵感

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    影片内容提要转化的灵感,讲述了平淡无奇的五谷杂粮经卤素、酒曲、酵母等催化剂糅合后转化成各种美食的经历。腐乳、豆豉、黄酒、泡菜,都有一个共同点,它们都具有一?#22336;?#39321;浓郁的特殊风味。这种味道是人与微生物携手贡献的独特风味。

    一、美食中英对照

    大煮干丝:raised shredded chicken with ham and dried tofu

    豆腐脑:tofu curd

    香炸奶豆腐:fried dried milk cake

    蒙?#25293;?#33590;:Mongolia milky tea

    炸乳扇:fried dairy fan

    烤羊排:baked lamp chop

    红烧毛豆腐:stinky tofu braised in soy sauce

    酸菜白肉:pickled Chinese cabbage with plain boiled pork

    酸菜饺子:dumpling of pickled Chinese cabbage

    二、中英文台本

    第三集《转化的灵感》

    Episode 3 Inspiration for Transformation

    在吃的法则里,风味重于一切。中国人从来没有把自己束缚在一张乏味的食品清单上。人们怀着对食物的理解,在不断的尝试中寻求着转化的灵感。

    Taste is more important than anyting else as far as food is concerned. The Chinese have never restricted themselves to a certain tedious food list. With their understanding of food, the Chinese are always looking for an inspiration for change.

    天一放晴,姚贵文就把竹匾搬到天台上。这些豆腐球是他?#25512;?#23376;几天的劳动成果。有些豆腐已经略显微黄,但这种程度的改变?#23545;?#19981;够,姚贵文还要再?#25176;?#31561;待几天。干瘪坚硬以及黑褐色的表皮才是成熟的标志,这种变化来自于自然发酵。

    Once the clouds clear up, Yao Guiwen moves the split-bamboo baskets to the terrace. He and his wife have spent days making the tofu balls. Some tofu has already turned yellowish. But that's far from enough. Yao has to wait several days more. When it gets hard and shriveled and the skin turns black, then the tofu has matured. The change is because of fermentation.

    王翠华把?#24576;尚?#30340;嫩豆腐紧紧包裹起来,?#36153;?#20986;水分后,豆腐才会?#23578;巍?#22914;果不抓紧时间,新鲜的豆腐很快就会变馊,这意味着她必须包得飞快,并且没有时间休息。

    Wang Cuihua tightly wraps the shapeless tender tofu with gauze and squeezes out the water. Then the tofu takes shape. There is no time to lose. The fresh tofu will quickly turn sour. It means Wang has to work very quickly without rest.

    一盆烧?#20204;?#21040;好处的炭火,是姚贵文下午工作的关键。

    A basin of charcoal fire of proper heat will be the key to Yao's work in the afternoon.

    位于云南红河地区的建水古城,古称临安。在1200年间,一度是中国西南的重镇。如今,时间已经让?#25293;?#30340;荣耀褪色。和云南的许多小城一样,建水是一个多民族的聚居地,各种文化的掺?#26377;?#25104;了特有的氛围和格局。

    Jianshui in Honghe Prefecture of Yunnan Province was named Lin'an in ancient times. It was once an important city in southwest China during the past 1200 years. Its brilliance has gradually faded with the passage of time. Just like many other towns in Yunnan, Jianshui is a multi-ethnic settlement. Different cultures have merged here, conjuring a unique atmosphere.

    炭火的热力,让坚硬的豆腐迅速膨胀,这很容易让人联想到发酵的面团。建水人很会享用这种由风干和发酵打造出的特殊味道。蘸豆腐的调料各有不同,但是对姚贵文来说,豆腐本身的?#23454;?#25165;是最重要的。

    The tough tofu quickly inflates in the heat of charcoal fire. It reminds people of fermented flour. People of Jianshui like enjoying this special air-dried and fermented flavor. People can enjoy the tofu with varied sauces. But for Yao, the texture of tofu is the most important.

    河谷地区的温暖很容易让豆腐发酵,而?#35782;?#30340;干燥又让它们不至于腐败。对于风、水、阳光和豆腐之间的微妙关系,姚贵文?#28909;?#20309;人都要敏感。

    Tofu easily ferments in the warm weather of the river valley area. And the mildly dry air prevents it from rotting. Yao is more sensitive than anyone else to the subtle relations between wind, water, sunshine and tofu.

    这里是建水最著名的大板井。在水井旁,女人们单靠手指的合作,就构建起一条豆腐的流水线。

    This is the famous Daban Well of Jianshui. Beside the well, women set up a production line of tofu by just using their fingers.

    做豆腐的各个环节?#24049;?#27700;密不可分。拥有128口水井的建水人很懂得水。中国人相信,水能滋养人的灵性和觉悟。这一点,就仿佛水对豆腐的塑造。两者间有一种不可?#26434;?#30340;共通。

    Water is a necessity in every procedure of making tofu. With a total of 128 wells in Jianshui, local residents are well versed with water. The Chinese believe water nourishes the spirit and mind up people. Just like water to tofu, the common points speak for themselves.

    在距离建水不到40公里的古城石屏,这里的豆腐在气质上却大为不同。?#23578;?#30340;豆腐体积大得惊人,?#35757;?#30340;是它们极富?#25176;裕?#20960;乎不会破损,少许的盐就可以最大程度地保鲜。

    The ancient town of Shiping is less than 40km from Jianshui. Tofu here has a completely different look. The finished product is shockingly big. But it's unusually tenacious. And it almost doesn't crumble. A dash of salt can best preserve the tofu's freshness.

    中国的云南,历来不是大豆的主要产区,可却不妨碍这里拥有悠久的豆腐历史。吃一颗豆腐,投一粒玉米,用这?#22336;?#27861;记数,买卖双方十分默契。

    Yunnan has never been a major soybean production area, but it has a long history of making tofu. One corn for one piece of tofu. There is a tacit agreement between the buyer and the seller.

    30年来,姚贵文的豆腐摊上很少冷清过。从豆腐摊回家要走30?#31181;櫻?#20960;乎横穿老城。发展的速度飞快,这改变了建水的很多事情。在漫长的时间里,一些变量消失了,一些变量被修改,还有新的变?#32771;?#20837;进来。总有一些经得起时间的磨砺,保留了下来。

    For the past 3 decades, Yao's tofu stall has never been quiet. It takes half an hour to walk from the stall to home and Yao has to go across almost the entire town. The rapid development has changed many aspects of Jianshui. As time goes by, some variables have disappeared and others, altered. And new ones are added. But there are some that stand the tests of time and remain.

    姚贵文和王翠华围绕着豆腐的生活清淡?#37327;唷?#19976;夫最大的愿望是能去远方的大湖钓鱼,虽然他从来没有钓过鱼。在这对夫妇眼里,每一颗豆腐?#24049;?#29645;贵,它们能?#35805;?#21161;自己供养子女,过上幸福安稳的生活。

    The Yao's life centered on tofu is watery and hard. The biggest wish of the husband is to fish in the big lake far away. He has no merits but only shorcomings. To the couple, every piece of tofu is precious. It help them to support their children and sustain a happy family life.

    在1000多年里,伴随着北方民族的数次迁入,豆腐代表的中原饮食文化已经深植于西南边陲的这片富饶之地,并且演绎出自己独特的气质。这些一脉相承的制作细节,让人联想到几千公里外的中原腹地。在那里,中国的豆腐从诞生到兴盛,一路走过2000年。

    In the past over 1,000 years, with rounds of northern immigration, tofu, the representative of central China's food culture, has taken roots in the abundant land on the south-west border. And it has developed its unique disposition. The production details remind us of the hinterland of central China that is thousands of miles away. There, from birth to prosperity, tofu has enjoyed a history of 2,000 years.

    胡学兵正赶往县城,他要在早市上卖掉今天的豆腐。

    Hu Xuebing is on his way to the county town. He needs to sell his tofu at the morning market.

    寿县是?#19981;?#30465;北部的一座古老的小县城,这里的人们对豆腐的情感非同一般。他们坚信,自己的祖先就是伟大的豆腐发明者。10月中旬,皖北地区的黄豆早已收获归仓,用新黄豆磨制的豆腐向来最受欢迎。在中国几千年的农耕史中,大豆一直占据着重要的地位置。在已知的豆科食物中,大?#25925;?#34507;?#23383;首?#20016;富也是最廉价的食物来源,可它早期的境遇一度尴尬。煮熟的大豆无法引起人们的食欲,并且使肠胃大?#31354;推?#36843;切的需要就是寻?#19994;?#36827;食大豆的最佳方式。

    Shouxian County is an old little town in the north Anhui province, people there has a special attachment to tofu. They believe their ancestors invented the great tofu. In middle October, soybeans in north Anhui have already been ripped and stored tofu made with newly harvested soybeans has always been the most popular in China's thousands years old history of agriculture. Soybean has long occupied an important position among the well-known legumes. Soybean is the richest in protein. So for the cheapest sustenance, but it was once in an awkward position. Cooked soybeans failed to wet people's appetite and to make matter's worse caused flatulence people urgently need to find the best way to consume soybeans.

    ?#20248;?#37324;的白色粉末是石膏,它是把豆浆点化成豆腐的关键。胡学兵对于石膏的纯熟运用和他的祖先如出一辙。在煮沸的豆浆中,变性的蛋?#23383;?#21644;石膏相遇后迅速发生胶凝作用,这种变化如此巨大,以至于在瞬间就可以觉察到。

    The white power on scale is gypsum, the key to turn soy milk into tofu. Hu Xuebing can use gypsum as skillfully as his ancestors.When the denatured protein meets the gypsum, the boiling soymilk quickly coagulates. The change is so drastic that it can be see in a blink of eye in ancient days.

    遥远的年代里,石膏常常出现在中国术士们的秘籍之中,而它和豆腐的渊源据说也恰恰与此相关。很多人相信,2000多年前,正是热衷炼丹的淮南王刘安,在八公山中用豆浆培育丹苗时碰巧加入了石膏,于是无意间促成?#30805;?#33104;的诞生。不管事实是不是真的那么富有戏剧性,中国人必定经历了漫长的摸索,才让豆腐最终成为了一种了不起的中国食物。无论如何,豆腐的诞生彻底改变了大豆的命运。

    Gypsum often appeared in secret scriptures of Chinese war locks. It is said that was how the relation between gypsum and tofu originated started.Over 2000 years ago, Liu An, the king of Huanan was addicted to alchemy when nurturing a mortal pill in soymilk. He happened to add some gypsum in it. Many people believe that's how tofu was invented, regardless of whether the reality was as dramatic as the story. Chinese must be coping for a long time before finally making tofu a great food of china. The invention of tofu however completely changes the fate of soybeans.

    豆腐无限包容的个性,给擅长烹饪的中国人创造?#24605;?#22823;的想象空间。?#20999;?#21407;本让大豆尴尬的不利因素----胰蛋白酶?#31181;?#21058;、不能被吸收的糖以及?#33756;幔?#22312;中国人古老的转化手段中,都被自觉或不自觉地消除了。豆腐的出现,让人体对大豆蛋白的吸收和利用达到了一种高峰。中国厨师对豆腐的理解往往会让人大吃一惊。或许可以说,中国人用豆腐表达了自己柔软变通的?#35270;?#24615;。所有的这些,让一粒黄豆得到了升华。这些乳白色的浆液令人浮想联翩。

    [en]The great flexibility tofu offers a huge space for the imagination of the Chinese well-known for color its skill. The disadvantages of soybeans were eliminated by reason or unconsciously. As the ancient Chinese transform soybeans into tofu, the value of soybeans protein to human body reach the climax for the invention of tofu. Chinese cooks' understanding of tofu will often take you by surprise. May be it is also correct to say that the Chinese are showing their adaptability through tofu, and thus, soybean has been sublimated.The milky juice arouses many thoughts in our mind.

    在中国北方的辽阔草原上,蒙古族的牧民也被另一种流淌的美味滋养着。9月下旬,乌珠穆沁草原已经褪去了绿色。孟克?#22270;?#20154;抓紧时间,赶在严冬之前进行最后的出场?#25293;痢?#33609;原的深秋充满寒意。干燥的牛粪可以让炉火烧得更旺一些。

    On the vast grassland of north China,the Mongolian nomads are nourished by another flowing delicacy. In late September, the green cover is fading on Uzemchin grassland. Mengke and his family are seizing the last days of grazing before the bitter winter arrives. The chill is felt in the late autumn of grassland; dried cow manure can make the fire burn up.

    奶茶是早餐中永远的主?#24688;?#30742;茶、黄油、炒米以及鲜奶是一锅奶茶的重要内容。奶豆腐是几天?#30333;?#30340;。草原上的人离不开奶茶和奶豆腐,无法靠蔬菜和水果来补充的维生素和矿物质,都可以从这里获得。

    Milk tea is always a must for breakfast. Brick tea, butter, stir-fired millet and fresh milk are the important ingredients for making milk tea. Milk curd was made several days ago. Milk tea and curd are indispensable for people living on the grassland. They provide vitamins and minerals that can't be gained from vegetables and fruits.

    草原有着神奇的化繁为简的能力。“木犊?#31508;?#23391;克的牛,正处在哺乳期。妈妈要想顺利从?#27010;?#37027;里获得鲜奶,得先过小牛这一关。鲜奶已经不像天气暖和时那样容易发?#22303;恕?#22920;妈要抓紧时间?#29616;?#37240;奶豆腐,作为漫长冬天的储备。表皮的酸奶油先被小心地舀出来,这是很珍贵的部分。发酵的牛奶结成块状的凝乳,蛋白和乳清在火力下分离开。乳清不会被浪费,它们最适合喂牲畜。需要不停地搅动,这样奶团才不会粘到锅底。最后的乳清?#24576;?#24213;?#27597;?#26102;,奶团?#24576;?#28909;盛进模具中。孟克把新鲜的奶豆腐最先递到爷爷面前,那是最好的美食。

    Grassland has the magical power to make tings simple. Mudu the cattle of Mengke, is in the lactation period, to get fresh milk from the cow, Mengke's mother, has to get permission from the cow. Fresh milk no longer ferments as easily as during the warm days. The mother must hurry to make the milk curd as food reserve for the long winter. The sour cream on the surface is carefully ladled out and the cream is very precious. Fermented milk curdles protein and whey is separated when heated. The whey, though, won't be wasted as it best for feeding livestock. You have to keep stirring the juice, so that the curdled milk won't stick to the pot. When the whey is fully separated, the hot curdled milk is put into moulds. Mengke offers the fresh milk curd to his grandfather. It’s the best delicacy.

    一直向南,几千公里外的云南,几乎是同样的情形。粗重的木筷被灵活地使用。一个光滑的牛奶团子很快就被揉了出来。三两下后奶团子被拉扯成片,卷上墙边的竹架。

    Heading straight south, an almost identical scene is happening in Yunnan thousands of miles away. Thick and heavy chopsticks are moved vigorously. A smooth curdled "milk lump" has soon be rolled after several moves; the lump is dragged into a sheet which is then rolled up onto the bamboo rack by the wall.

    在?#29420;?#21271;?#35762;?#21407;的云南大理,白族人家用相似的手法来转化这里的牛奶。乳扇被晾到场院里风干,像是挂起了巨大的风铃。

    In far away Dali, Yunnan, a similarly method is adopted by the Bai minority to transfer milk Rushan, made from milk are hung and air dried in the yard just like giant wind chimes.

    在800年前,忽必烈时期的蒙古人远征到云南。定居至此的蒙古人也带来了遥?#37117;?#20065;的奶食味道。他们不会想到,这种转化的手法一直被流传下来,生机勃勃。

    Over 800 years ago, during the reign of Kublai Khan, the expeditionary Mongolians arrived and settled in Yunnan. They brought dairy products from their home. Unexpectedly, the way to transform milk has been passed down and still prosperous even today.

    妈妈从木盒里取出已经结实的奶豆腐。风干的奶豆腐可以保存很久。肉并不经常吃,因为牲畜太宝贵了。各种奶食几乎成为草原上的主食。

    Mother takes the hardened milk curd out of the wooden box. Dried milk curd can be preserved for an extremely long time. Meat is a luxury as livestock is so precious. Dairy products have almost become the main food on the grassland.

    这是位于?#26412;?#24066;区的一座大型的蒙古餐厅。美味的烤羊背成为食客们的首选,它很容易让人联想到远?#35762;?#21407;上那种粗犷的生活方式。但是对于?#20999;?#36523;处草原腹地的人们来说,这些奶食才更贴近他们原本的生活。

    This is a Mongolian restaurant in downtown Beijing. The mouth-watering roast lamb back is the top choice for dinners here. It easily reminds us of the food lifestyle on the grassland, but to people living in the depth of the grassland, milk products are more close to their real life.

    雨让气温降到了冰点。二姐在灌木里发现了走失的羊羔。这些牛羊是家里的财产,也是牧人生命的一部分。

    Rain brings the temperatures down to freezing. Mengke's second elder sister has found the lost lamb in the bush. Lamb tock are family assets and part of the nomads' life.

    孟克换上了过冬的新袍子。热茶和奶豆腐让孟克并不觉?#32654;洹?#36825;些奶食将?#20013;?#19981;断地提供热量,足够支持他一上午的?#25293;痢?#26395;远镜是爷爷当年的战利品。孟克三岁时失去父亲,从小跟着爷爷学习?#25293;痢?#29239;爷告诉孟克,能做好一个牧民就很好了。手持套马杆,纵身跃上马?#24120;?#23391;克觉得自己充满力量。

    Mengke has changed into his new winter robe. Hot tea and milk curd keep him warm, and the milk products will continually provide calories to sustain the entirely morning's herding. The telescope is the legacy of his grandfather's. Mengke lost his father at the age of three. He learned to herd with his grandfather. His grandfather has told him that it's good enough to be a qualified herdsman. Host poling in hands, Mengke threw himself on the horse, feeling full of strength.

    草原之外的地区,?#25991;?#34987;农耕取代,人们没有条件大规模地?#25293;?#29275;羊,有限的土地首先被用来耕种,乳制品最终没能在中原的厨?#31354;?#24471;一席之地。农耕文明中的人们转而将目光?#26029;?#21478;外一种植物?#35797;矗?#21435;获取宝贵的蛋?#23383;剩?#21478;辟蹊径地在植物范畴寻?#19994;搅说鞍字?#30340;支持。这对历史上缺乏肉食的中国人来说,?#35789;?#26234;慧也是一?#20013;以恕?/p>

    Out the grassland, herding is substituted by farming. Without the conditions for grazing cattle and sheep, people choose to cultivate the limited land. Dairy products have failed to hold this position in kitchens of central China. People living in farming culture have shifted their eyes to other plant resources to obtain precious protein. It was revolutionary for the Chinese to gain protein from plants. To the Chinese who historically had insufficient meat supply, the discovery is wisdom as well as luck.

    在浙江天台山的古老寺庙中,僧人们正准?#32538;?#22987;他们一天中重要的一餐,修行者的食?#36164;?#20840;素的。修行的生活很清苦,即便是进餐,也是一种功课。事实上只有中国的汉地佛教,才真正将食素作为一种戒律来遵守。这深刻影响了一千多年间中国人的素食传?#22330;?/p>

    In the ancient temple of Mount Tiantai, the monks are preparing the most important meal of a day. Monk has vegetarian diet. The monastic life is poor and simple, even dinning is a practice of Buddhism. In fact, only Han Buddhism in China includes vegetarian diet as its religious disciplines. That has deeply impact to traditional vegetarianism in China over the past 1000 years.

    来源于植物的豆腐,既符合严苛的心理戒律,同时又能在营养上给予身体最大的支持。在蛋?#23383;?#30340;提供上,大豆食品是惟一能够媲美肉类的植物性食材。对于素食者来说,这相当完美。

    Originating from plants, tofu can follow the strict disciplines, and it provides the best possible nutrition for the body. Soybean is the only plant food that matches meat for protein quality. So to vegetarians, it's perfect despite its plainness.

    中国的豆腐在“清?#36873;?#20013;暗含?#22235;?#31181;精神层面的气质。古人称赞豆腐有“和德?#34180;?#21507;豆腐的人能安于清贫,而做豆腐的人也懂得?#20843;称?#33258;然?#34180;?/p>

    Chinese tofu is given a certain spiritual quality. The ancient people praised it saying tofu has merits. Those who have tofu are contained within simple life, and those who make tofu understand as to let life take its course.

    ?#19981;?#21335;部,独特的地理环境和温润的气候促成了人们恬淡保守的气质,也孕育出了特有的食物。这些附着白色菌丝的奇特食物,它们的实质是豆腐。还没到能够大?#21487;?#20135;的季节,方兴玉家的毛豆腐奇货可居,在中午之前就会告罄。

    The unique geological environment and mild weather in southern Anhui have form calm and conserved qualities in its people, though so produced unique food. The strange food covered with white hypha is actually tofu. As the season for mass production has not yet arrive, the hairy tofu in Fang Xingyu's shop is a rare commodity worth holding. It will be sold out before noon.

    豆腐上浓密的绒毛带给人们丰富的联想,比如说动物。这里的确有生命。白色的细丝是毛霉菌的菌丝,是它们?#31204;?#35910;腐新的活力。很难想象这种食物是如何诞生的。

    The heavy hair covering tofu launches our imagination. We link it , for example, to animal, and there is indeed a life in it. The white thin hair is the hypha of mucor, which gives tofu a new vitality. It’s hard to believe how this food is actually made.

    如今,方兴玉把豆腐坊的大部分工作交给了大女儿。作为家中的长女,妈妈把她和豆腐坊的未来联系在一起。

    Today, Fang Xingyu has handed over most of the workshop to her elder daughter. Fang has begun to associate her future of the shop with her.

    豆浆的表皮渐渐凝结,这是大豆富含油脂的表现。但是对于制作毛豆腐来讲,油脂是多余的。

    The surface of soybean milk gradually coagulates, which shows the soybean is rich in oil, but to produce hairy tofu, oil is not required.

    油豆皮被晾晒在竹筷上,风干后成为毛豆腐的副产品,它们是另一种质感的美食。制作毛豆腐的关键在于用自制的发酵?#20843;?#27700;”来点卤。酸性物质可以同样让大豆蛋白凝固,但是?#20843;?#27700;?#22791;?#22823;的意义在于伴随着点卤的过程,其中的微生物们?#33756;?#20043;流入,像种子一样被埋植进豆腐当中。

    Tofu skin is hung on the chopstick when air dried and become a by-product of hairy tofu. In other delicacy with a totally different texture, the key to produce hairy tofu is to add self-made "sour juice" into soymilk for fermentation. The sour substance can make soy protein clot. What's more important is that microorganisms flow into the milk with the pouring of sour juice. It's just like burying seeds into tofu.

    在中国的任何地方,做豆腐都是极其?#37327;?#30340;工作。餐桌上,一家人陆续进入和离开,最后回来的是姐姐。妹妹要陪姐姐吃完已经冷了的一餐。对于妈妈和姐姐来说,生活的很多部分已经和豆腐坊牢牢长在了一起。

    No matter wherever you are in China making tofu is an extremely hard work. Family members sit down and out and leave the dinning table in succession. The elder sister is always the last one to come. Her sister will accompany her to finish the already cold dishes.To the mother and the elder sister, the tofu workshop has already become a major part of their lives.

    方兴玉是不会在湿热的夏天做毛豆腐的。“桑拿天”里,人们很难控制豆腐发酵的走向。但是在其它的季节里,徽州温润的环境却能引导微生物们走上发酵的正轨。方兴玉希望与这有关的一切,自己的女儿都能够学习?#22303;?#24735;到。

    Fang will not make hairy tofu in the sultry summer.We can't control the fermentation of tofu in sauna days.But in other seasons, the warm and humid environment in Huizhou makes microorganisms ferment properly. Fang hopes her daughter can learn and understand everything about making tofu.

    这些绒毛,它们是霉菌、酵母菌和?#22919;?#20204;是否?#25176;成?#38271;的指标。这直接关系到发酵的进程以?#30333;?#32456;味道的鲜美与否。

    The hair is actually fungi, the index showing whether the yeast and germs are growing harmoniously. It decides the progress of fermentation and whether the final product is delicious or not.

    深谙美食的徽州人是毛豆腐的知音。吃法可繁可简。在老徽州眼中,一点辣酱就可以让炭火上的豆腐锦上添花了。豆腐的内部已经大为不同了,毛霉菌?#32622;?#34507;白?#31119;?#35753;大豆蛋白降解成小分子的胨类、多?#26286;?#27688;基酸。这一系列转化,?#31204;枇硕?#33104;异常的鲜美,这种浓郁的风味被徽州人称作“家乡的味道?#34180;?/p>

    Huizhou people who are gourmets can truly appreciate hairy tofu. You can have it in a simple or complicated way. In the mind of old Huizhou people, a little bit of chilly sauce goes best with coal roast tofu. The interia of tofu is completely different. Mucor secretes proteinase making soy protein degrades into smaller molecules of peptones, polypeptide and amino acid. This series of transformations give tofu an incomparable flavor. Huizhou people call this strong flavor—a flavor of hometown.

    菌?#32771;湎感?#30340;颗粒是散落的孢子,那是毛豆腐成熟的标志。聪明的中国人对这些微小生物的运用得心应手。事实上,这种转化的智慧在更为?#36855;?#30340;年代里,就已经熠熠生辉了。

    The small grains among the hypha are spores, and an indication of the hairy tofu is properly matured. The clever Chinese are profession in using the microorganisms. In fact, the wisdom of transformation sparkled early in ancient times.

    酒,应该是人们利用微生物进行食物转化的最早的案例了。用?#20037;?#37247;出的黄酒是世界上最古老的?#35780;?#20043;一。立冬的清晨,绍兴的天空开始下起小雨。这对酿酒师傅们来说,是个好征兆。酵母菌?#19981;?#27743;南冬季这?#32622;?#38271;而又不剧烈的冷。

    Wine is probably the earliest case of how people transform food with microorganisms. Huangjiu, literally meaning yellow wine brewed from rice, is one of the oldest wine in the world. It's the morning of Lidong, the start of winter. It has started to drizzle in Shaoxing. It's a good sign for wine makers. Yeast favors the long but mild coldness of winter in Jiangnan, south of the lower Yangtze valley.

    在酒厂的老?#23548;?#37324;,师傅们进进出出,准备着祭祀用的贡品。今天是请酒神的日子,没有人怠慢。即便是最好的酿酒师傅,也无法保证年年都能酿出好酒,因为有捉摸不定的天、风、空气,还有菌。每一年的仪式都是酿酒师们对自然表达的一种尊重。

    The wine makers go in and out of the wine workshop getting ready for tributes of the sacrifice. This is the day to worship the god of wine; no one dares to slight it, even the best wine maker can not ensure he can brew the best wine every year due to the capricious weather, wind, air and fungi. Every year, the sacrifice is for the wine makers to show their reverence for nature.

    绍兴的黄酒冬酿即将开始。和绍兴处在同一纬度线上同属古越地区的?#19981;?#30465;休宁县,73岁的陈进顺也在忙着酿造自家的糯米酒。对于老人来说,做酒算不上一件难事。

    Winter brewing is about to begin in Shaoxing, also located in the Guyuan region, Xiuning of Anhui is on the same latitude as Shaoxing. 73 years old Cheng Jingshun is busy brewing homemade glutinous rice wine. Brewing wine isn't difficult for old people.

    富庶的江南地区,?#20037;资?#29983;活中不可缺少的部分。年前正是农闲,做几坛米酒祭神敬祖、?#20889;?#23458;人、犒劳自己,都是自然不过的事。

    In the abundant Jiangnan, rice is an indispensable part of life here. It's only natural to make several jars of wine to treat them and treat the guests as well as worship gods during the slack season of farming.

    蚕茧般的酒曲是酿酒的灵魂,可以把它理解成接上了菌的种子。这些稻粉和辣蓼草的混合体,里面?#20102;?#32773;形形色色的发酵菌,等待合适的时机?#25307;选?/p>

    The cocoon shaped Jiuqu or fermentation starter, is the soul of wine making. Jiuqu is considered to be "the seed of yeast". A variety of the yeasts are laying in the mixture of rice powder and red….herbs. They are waiting for the perfect time to wake up.

    陈进顺把?#33000;?#30340;酒曲均匀地和糯米拌在一起。酒曲是中国人了不起的发明,是人们试图捕?#33014;脱?#21270;微生物的最古老而有效的尝试。这是酿酒中最重要的一步,它们将带来转化中最神奇的部分。

    Cheng mixes the crushed Jiuqu with glutinous rice. Jiuqu is a great invention of the Chinese people, the most ancient and effective attempt of human beings at taming microorganisms. This is the most important step of making wine which will bring about the most magical part of the transformation.

    拌好的糯米被拨出一个深深的酒窝,再把指缝间的每一粒米都抹进缸中,撒上最后一把酒曲。之后的一切,都要交给时间了。?#20999;?#38665;菌就会把糯米中的淀粉变?#21830;牽?#32780;酵母菌们负责把糖变成酒精。在黑暗中,仿佛传来发酵菌们欢快的歌声。时间越久,酒?#37233;?#39321;。黄酒绵长而厚重,中国人可以从这一种饮品里同时品味出“柔”和?#26696;鍘?#20004;种境界。

    A deep hole is dug in the well mixed rice. Not a single grain of rice will be wasted. To distribute the last handful of Jiuqu powder, all the procedures are finished. Now we will just let time deal with the rest of the work. The moulds will change the starch into sugar. The yeast will turn the sugar into alcohol. We can almost hear the hilarious singing of yeast spreading from the darkness. The longer the time, the more fragrant the wine will become. Huangjiu's flavor is thick and strong, and it stays for long.The Chinese can taste both the "tenderness" and the "toughness" in the wine.

    饮黄酒的绍兴人不温不火,他们对传统的?#28108;匾?#26377;滋有味地流淌在舌尖上。绍兴人离不开?#20174;停?#36825;几乎成为绍兴最醒目的一种味觉标记。什么都可以酱一酱再吃。足够的?#21619;?#21487;以让食物在湿潮的环境里久放不?#24608;?#22312;?#20174;?#37324;翻滚过的任何食物都被?#31204;?#20102;浓重的酱香味,它们被本地人称作“家乡菜?#34180;?/p>

    Huangjiu-drinking Shaoxing people are mild and moderate, and their persistence to the tradition has allowed them to enjoy the time on their flavor.Almost every household in Shaoxing has soy sauce. Soy sauce is a must in the lives of the Shaoxing people, which has already become the most distinctive taste identity of Shaoxing. All the food can be braised in soy sauce. Enough salt allows food to stay fresh in humidity. Food rolled in soy sauce gives us a special aroma. Local people call it the "cuisine of home".

    这里是自古的繁荣富庶之地。如今,许多人家仍然乐于枕河而居,过闲适的日子。

    Historically, Shaoxing has been a prosperous and abundant land. Even today, many people love to reside by the river enjoying a relaxed life.

    城外的安昌古镇,?#36136;?#20020;水而建。正是做腊味的季节,长短的竹竿上彰显出富足。安昌的腊肠在中国的江浙一带很有名气。腊肠浓厚的滋味很大一部分要归功于当地酿造的?#20174;汀?#37233;园里,露天的空场上排列着上百只硕大的酱缸。五十六岁的丁国云依然身手?#23186; ?#37233;料粘稠、厚重,需要人力定时的上下翻动,酱缸内的发酵才会均?#21462;?#22312;这些酱缸里,微生物的世界互相制约,此消彼长。

    The ancient town of Anchang, outside Shaoxing city, is built along the river. It's the season for making preserved meats. Bamboo poles of different length display their abundance. The sausage of Anchang is very famous in Zhejiang. Its good flavor is largely attributed to the locally brewed sauce. Dozens of giant jars standing in the yard of sauce shop. 56-year-old Ding Guoyun still works vigorously. The sauce is thick and stinky. Workers have to stir it with the fixed schedule to ensure the fermentation takes place evenly within the jar, and within the jar the microorganisms will restricted one another, one kind's lose is another's gain.

    酱缸修修?#20849;?#29992;?#24605;?#21313;年。阳光的暴晒能够增加菌的活力,但是雨水可能会搞砸一切。酱缸的帽子不时地被拿下来扣上去,时间就在这反复的声响中流走。

    The jars have been through many repairs during the past several decades. The direct exposure in the sun can greatly stimulate the vitality of yeast, but rain could ruin everything. Time slips always in the repeated sound of lids of jars, being moved away and put back.

    “中国的?#30784;保?#22312;人类的发酵史上独树一?#27169;?#25968;千年间,它成?#22303;?#20013;国人餐桌上味道的基础。

    The sauce of China started the trend of human beings' history of fermentation. Several thousands of years had passed, and it has become a fundamental flavor on dinning tables in China.

    在中国的北方,酱的意味更加直?#21360;?#29579;月英家的酱缸里只剩下一层缸底。足够的?#21619;齲媒?#22312;严冬中也不容易结?#22330;?#22312;寒冷的东?#20445;?#38271;久以来盐以酱的形式成为人们身体?#25176;?#29702;的一种依靠。

    In north China, the meaning of sauce is more straightforward. Only a little paste is left in the jar of Wang Yuying's. Enough salt ensures the sauce won't get frozen in sever winter. In chilly northeast China, quiet a long time, salt in a form of sauce, has provided a physical and psychological support for people.

    再过三个月就是下新酱的时候了,但是准备的工作却要从现在开始。煮熟的黄豆在锅里直接被捣烂。在中国的东北地区,人们做?#31895;?#29992;大豆这一种材料。这样的单一也是一种奢侈。

    3 months later, it will be time to make new soybean paste, but the preparation work will start now. The cooked soybeans are smashed in the pot. In northeast China, soybean is the only ingredient for making sauce. The monopoly is also a luxury.

    黑龙江有中国最肥沃的黑土地,这里的耕种和收获急促而短暂,却能出产最好的大豆。温暖的火炕上,六只手合力把豆泥堆砌?#23578;汀?#37233;的味道甚至可以成为衡量一个主妇合格与否的标准。捆绑成结实的酱坯?#36824;?#19978;墙。在之后的两个月里,它们静静的发酵,等到来年春天,再开?#20960;?#28145;入的转化。

    Heilongjiang province boasts the most fertile black soil in China. The farm and the harvest here is short and hasty, but the place produces the best soybeans. On the heated bed, six hands work together to pile the smashed beans into shape. The taste of the paste can even be the standard to measure whether a housewife is qualified. The tightly wrapped warm paste is hung on the wall. Over the course of the next 2 months, it will quietly ferment, and when spring arrives, the transformation will get even more dramatic.

    冬季在强大的蒙古高压的笼罩之下,北方的寒冷甚于版图中的其他地区。面对严寒,人总有变通。在腌菜缸中经历30多天复杂的发酵进程,白菜获得了重生。北方人对酸菜的情感毫无造作。在近7个月的寒冷季节里,这种腌?#24605;?#20046;代表了一种生活的方式。用力攥出菜叶中发酵的酸水,一来去除苦涩的味道,二来使酸菜本身的?#23454;?#26356;加脆韧。酸菜散发出令人愉悦的开胃的酸香味,那是乳酸的味道。发酵后,草酸被分解,产生了?#26286;?#27688;基酸,这一切都带来鲜美的风味。对于酸菜来说,绝佳的搭配是和猪肉在一起。酸菜巧妙地化解了猪肉的油腻。东北人的柴锅里不流于精致的外在形式,它们的内容有如东北人的性格----?#28010;?#22823;方。

    Under the powerful Siberian high winter in north China. It is more unbearable than any other places. Facing the sever chill, people will learn to adapt themselves. After a more than 30-day complicated fermentation, the Chinese cabbage in the jar has gained a whole new life. The northern people have an unaffected love for pickled cabbage. In the winter which lasts for nearly 7 months, the pickles have almost become a lifestyle. Squeezing out the sour water in the leaves, not only get rid of the bitterness but also make the cabbage taste crispier, the pickled cabbage gives out a pleasant and savory sour fragment that is the smell of lactic acid. After the fermentation, oxalate acid is discomposed. When dissolved in water, protein gives out peptide and amino acid which bring out this great flavor. The best partner of pickle cabbage is pork. Pickled cabbage subtly mutualizes the natural grease of pork. The caldron of northern Chinese doesn't enjoy a delicate look, but they content inside the caldron is just like the personality of the locals—straightforward and generous.

    今天,孩子们要回家看望?#25913;浮?#19968;顿酸菜馅的饺子将成为今晚餐桌上的主?#24688;?/p>

    Today, the children are all come back to visit their parents. The pickled stuffed cabbage dumplings will be the main course for dinner.

    时间流转,生命红火,这一年就这样过去了。

    Time flies as usual, and life remains prosperous. Another year has passed.

    重点单词   查看全部解释    
    protein ['prəuti:n]

    想一想再看

    n. 蛋?#23383;?/p>

     
    accompany [ə'kʌmpəni]

    想一想再看

    vt. 陪伴,伴随,给 ... 伴奏
    vi.

    联想记忆
    stir [stə:]

    想一想再看

    n. 感动(激动,愤怒或震动), 搅拌,骚乱

     
    reverence ['revərəns]

    想一想再看

    n. ?#27425;罰?#23562;敬,尊严 v. 尊敬,?#27425;罰?#23815;敬 Reve

    联想记忆
    jar [dʒɑ:]

    想一想再看

    n. 不?#25176;常?#21050;耳声,震动,震惊,广口瓶
    vi

    联想记忆
    extremely [iks'tri:mli]

    想一想再看

    adv. 极其,非常

    联想记忆
    variety [və'raiəti]

    想一想再看

    n. 多样,种类,杂耍

     
    understand [.ʌndə'stænd]

    想一想再看

    vt. 理解,懂,听说,获悉,将 ... 理解为,认为<

     
    procedure [prə'si:dʒə]

    想一想再看

    n. 程序,?#20013;?#27493;骤; 常规的做法

    联想记忆
    cultivate ['kʌltiveit]

    想一想再看

    vt. 培养,耕作,栽培,结交(朋友), 促进增长,教养

    联想记忆
    ?

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