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    2018年美国的人权纪录(3)(中英对照)

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    II. Money Politics Prevail in the United States

    二、金钱政治大行其道
    The U.S. 2018 midterm elections cost a huge quantity of money. Elections became the games of money, with much involvement of "dark money" and corruption. Cases of politicians involved in corruption were not rare and the government served as the spokesperson of the rich.
    美国2018年的中期选举竞选开销巨大,选举沦为金钱游戏,“黑钱”和腐败现象?#29616;兀?#25919;治人物腐败案件屡见不鲜,政府成为富豪代言人。
    The "most expensive" midterm elections in history. The 2018 midterm elections were proved to be by far the most expensive ones on record. The final cost of 2018 midterm elections stood at 5.2 billion U.S. dollars, a 35 percent increase over 2014 in nominal dollars, the Center for Responsive Politics said on November 8, 2018 (www.opensecrets.org, November 8, 2018). The Texas Senate race was the most expensive House or Senate race in U.S. history, with Democrat candidate Beto O'Rourke alone setting a record by raising 69.1 million U.S. dollars (www.usatoday.com, November 16, 2018).
    史上“最昂贵”的中期选举。美国政治响应中心2018年11月8日指出,此次中期选举?#19981;?#36153;52亿美元,比2014年增长35%,是有史以来最昂贵的中期选举。(注12)?#27599;?#33832;斯州的参议员竞选成为美国历史上最奢侈的国会议员竞选。其中仅民主党候选人贝?#23567;?#22885;罗克一人就筹集了创纪录的6910万美元。(注13)
    Secret money donations and "dark money" swept over the elections. According to an NBC report on July 21, 2018, U.S. Treasury Department announced that it would no longer require most non-profit organizations to report their donors, making elections much less transparent. During the 2018 midterms, a record high of 98 million U.S. dollars in dark money were spent by outside groups other than the candidates' campaign committees. More than 40 percent of television advertisements broadcast by outside groups to influence congressional elections were financed by secret donors and over one-fourth of the advertising funds for House and Senate elections came from groups that did not disclose their donors. Airings by "dark money" groups in federal races since the 2014 midterms jumped by 26 percent (www.usatoday.com, July 12 and November 16, 2018).
    秘密捐助资金和“黑钱”大行其道。美国全国广播公司新闻网2018年7月21日报道,美国财政部宣布不再要求大多数非营利组织报告捐赠来源,大大降低选举的透明度。在2018年美国中期选举中,候选人竞选委员会以外的外部团体花费的“黑钱?#36125;?#21040;了创纪录的9800万美元。在外部团体为影响国会选举而播放的电视广告中,超过40%是秘密捐赠者?#25163;?#30340;。在参议?#27721;?#20247;议院竞选中,有超过四分之一的广告?#25163;?#26469;自不披露捐赠者的团体。上次中期选举以来,联邦竞选中由这类“黑钱”团体播放的广告次数增加了26%。(注14)
    Electoral corruption became severer. The Guardian reported on August 7, 2018, that U.S. elections were widely seen to be corrupt by the public. Members of Congress were viewed to be captured by corporations, wealthy donors and special interests groups. The average cost of winning a Senate seat was 19.4 million U.S. dollars while winning a House of Representatives seat would cost at least 1.5 million U.S. dollars on average. Election fraud such as using money in exchange for votes was common. According to a report of The New York Times on its website on November 20, 2018, the Los Angeles district attorney announced that nine people had been charged with paying homeless people with one-dollar bills and some cigarettes in exchange for signing names on voter registration forms.
    选举腐败愈演愈?#25671;?#33521;国《卫报》网站2018年8月7日报道,公众普遍认为美国选举是腐败的,国会议员被企业、富人和特殊利益集?#27431;?#33719;。赢得一个参议?#21512;?#20301;的平均成本为1940万美元。赢得一个众议?#21512;?#20301;平均至少要花费150万美元。选举过程中存在大量“以金钱换选票”的舞弊现象。《纽约时报》网站11月20日报道,洛杉矶地方检察官指出,有9人被指控向无家可归者支付1美元和几支香烟,以换取他们在选民登记表上签名。
    U.S. Government served as the spokesperson of the rich. According to a report released by Philip G. Alston, special rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights for the UN, the combined wealth of the United States cabinet reached about 4.3 billion U.S. dollars, turning the U.S. government into the spokesperson of the rich people. Former Arkansas State Senator and State Representative Henry Wilkins accepted bribes in exchange for voting in favor of the intentions of lobbyists, according to a statement on the website of U.S. Justice Department on April 30, 2018. Influenced by lobbyists, Florida governor Rick Scott cut 700 million U.S. dollars in funding for water management, Miami Herald reported on August 2, 2018. The reduction led to a severe red tide crisis, causing the death of marine life and endangering the health of coastal residents.
    政府成为富豪代言人。联合国极端贫困与人权问题特别报告员?#35780;?#26222;·奥尔斯顿2018年5月发布报告指出,美国内阁成员的财富总额达43亿美元,政府已经成为富豪的代言人。根据美国司法部网站4月30日披露的信息,前阿肯色州参议员、州众议员亨利·威尔金?#25925;?#21463;贿金,按照政治说客的意图进行投票。《迈阿密先驱报》8月2日报道,佛罗里达州州长斯科特受说客影响,削减7亿美元的水资源管理费,导致爆发大型?#26114;?#28526;”藻类危机,造成海洋生物死亡,?#29616;?#21361;害临海居民健康。
    Politicians' corruption scandals were seen constantly. Former Tallahassee mayor Scott Maddox faced a 44-count indictment including bribery, extortion and fraud, Miami Herald reported on December 8, 2018. A prominent Texas senator was accused of using her influence to try to end an investigation into a bar she and her husband owned, according to the website of the Houston Chronicle on June 8, 2018. The Week published an article titled "Corruption is eroding American democracy" on its website on December 14, 2018, saying corporations captured U.S. politicians with campaign donations and promises of future bribes so that politicians would make legislations on behalf of their businesses.
    政治人物腐败丑闻层出不穷。《迈阿密先驱报》2018年12月8日报道,佛罗里达州塔拉哈西市前市长马多克斯被指控44项罪名,包括受贿、勒索和欺诈?#21462;!?#20241;斯敦纪事报》网站6月8日报道,一名?#27599;?#33832;斯州著名参议员试图利用她的影响力阻止对其拥有的一家酒吧的调查。英国《周刊报道》网站12月14日刊发题为“腐败正在侵蚀美国民主”的文章,指出企业通过竞选捐款和利益回报?#20449;?#20440;获美国政客,使政客代表他们的利益立法。
    The public had pessimistic attitudes towards U.S. politics. A Pew Research Center survey on American democracy and the political system released on April 26, 2018, showed 53 percent of the surveyed said the United States did not respect "the rights and freedoms of all people." The Newsweek reported on June 26, 2018 that a poll showed 55 percent of Americans said democracy in the United States was "weak" currently, and 68 percent said they believed democracy in the United States was "getting weaker."
    民众对美国政治持悲观态度。皮尤研究中心2018年4月26日公布的一项针对美国民主和政治体制的调查显示,53%的受访者认为美国没有做到“尊重所有人的权利和自由?#34180;!?#26032;闻周刊》网站6月26日报道,民意调查显示,55%的受访者认为目前美国的民主?#26114;?#34180;弱?#20445;?8%的受访者认为美国的民主正在“变?#36855;?#26469;越弱?#34180;?/p>
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    prevail [pri'veil]

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    vi. 获胜,盛行,主导

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    exchange [iks'tʃeindʒ]

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    n. 交换,?#19968;唬?#20132;易所
    v. 交换,?#19968;唬?#20132;

     
    severe [si'viə]

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    adj. 剧烈的,?#29616;?#30340;,严峻的,严厉的,严格的

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    reduction [ri'dʌkʃən]

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    n. 减少,缩小,(化学)还原反应,(数学)约分

     
    corruption [kə'rʌpʃən]

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    n. 腐败,堕落,贪污

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    transparent [træns'perənt]

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    adj. 透明的,明显的,清晰的

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    corrupt [kə'rʌpt]

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    adj. 腐败的,堕落的
    vt. 使 ...

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    poverty ['pɔvəti]

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    n. 贫困,贫乏

     
    poll [pəul]

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    n. 投票,民意测验,民意,票数
    v. 做民意

     
    voting ['vəutiŋ]

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    n. 投票 动词vote的现在分词?#38382;?

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